Active Directory 2008

What is a forest?

A Forest is the largest container in Active Directory it is a collection of domain trees, which do not have contiguous namespace (as in figure 1). So they do not have to belong to the same Domain tree.

So let’s say there is a company called which has several departments one of those being sales. If this company had merged with another company called it would be a good idea if they could merge there data so that users from both of the sales departments could logon from either of the 2 company’s and access all data related to sales. To achieve this we create a Forest. The Forest enables us to merge Domain trees, which enables users that have been given access to logon from both sites and access the same data. Regardless of what company building they are at. This would make the company data more accessible for users.



Example of a Domain Tree                                                                          


When Windows server 2008 is part of a network the earliest Forest functional level Domain controller we can use is Windows 2000. This is because Windows Server 2008 does not support Windows NT. There is no functional level for an operating system before this. The idea of a forest is to make communication easier among non contiguous namespace Domain trees. It allows centralised management of resources.




Server 2008

How to install active directory? This tutorial will show you step by step how to install active directory using server 2008.

I will show you how to setup up Active Directory from Install to the point of creating a roaming profile.

Learn how to configure your windows XP computer to join a domain in server 2008?

I keep getting an error saying Network path not found how do I stop this?

I get an error message which says that my server copy of roaming profile can not be located?

So lets begin on the server we need to install Active Directory Domain Services before anything else.

Click start
Click “server manager”
This will open window like below.




Scroll down to “add roles” on the right hand side and left click with your mouse. This will open a window like below. You can just click "Next" as this windows is of no importance to us.



You will now see open a window called “Select server roles” like in my screen print below. You need to place a tick in the box which says “Active Directory Domain Services” and click next



The next window to open will be an introduction to active directory simply click next



The next window you see will be just confirming you want to install “Active Directory Domain Services” so click “Install”.



The next window you see will be the installation window like my screen print below.



The next window we see is the "Installation Results" window if you look at it you will see "Installation Succeeded" you can click on the tab that says "Close"


Now that it is installed you need to launch "Active Directory installation wizard" you can do this by typing (dcpromo) in to a terminal.


After typing “dcpromo" you will see the below screen

You need to make sure there is a tick in the box which says  “use advanced mode” then click “next”



You will then see the following warning sign
Just click next once you have read it.


We are now given the choice on where to create the domain controller. The options are
Existing forest
1, Add a domain controller to an existing domain
2, Create a new domain in an existing forest (This will cause the domain controller to be the first domain controller in the new domain)
You can create a new domain in a new forest
For this tutorial we will “create a new domain in a new forest”  so place a mark in the appropriate box and click “Next”



When you click next you will see a new window open like below. Here you will be able to type in a domain name. Once you have put in your domain name click “next”



You will now see a small window open with the message “verifying netbios name”



Once that message has gone  you will get a new window like the one below. If you are happy with the netbios name simply click “next”



You will now see another window like below which is giving you the chance to select the forest functional level. You will see I have server 2003 highlighted on mine as I do not have any server below that i.e. (THE EARLIES SERVER I HAVE ON MY DOMAIN IS SERVER 2003) so there is not much point in my choosing server 2000. If you do have server 2000 then you must choose it. Once you have selected the earliest server functional level click “next”



You should now see the window below. You will notice that “DNS” has been automatically ticked so you only need to click “next” assuming you want DNS enabled which Im confident you will.



You will more than likely get a DNS error like in the screenprint below. Do not worry we simply have not got round to dealing with DNS yet we will shortly. So just click “yes”


You will now see the window below, here you are given the opportunity to say where you want the logs stored. If you are going to change them then do so now. We change them for security reasons, if you choose not to so be it that is your decision. Simply click “next”
Your window will change to the one below. You are given the chance to now put in your password. Choose a good one. When you have put your password in click next



You will now see the screen-print below Click next.


Your window will now change to the one below You can see the wizard now configuring active directory.



When it has been configured you will see the next window below just click "Finish"
(We could have just placed a tick in the window above which would have rebooted our server when it had finished. I chose not to do this so I could take you through all the steps. It would have made no difference to the outcome.




When you click finish you will get a little window like below telling you that you need to reboot your computer. You should do this as soon as possible.



Now you have rebooted your PC you have successfully installed Active Directory Domain services.
Next step will be to create a user account in active directory so to continue this tutorial.









Convert Decimal To Binary


My intention is to show you an easy way to convert decimal to binary without all the mumbo jumbo that goes with it. If you spend 10 minutes reading this over and over and still do not comprehend what I am telling you then email me. But rest assured that will not be the case. You will be converting decimal to binary in no time. All I ask is if it worked for you please go to my comments page here and tell everyone else so others may benefit. When I needed to learn this it was because I was learning about "IP addressing" so I will be basing my example an ip address. The address we will use is
I would like you to remember this 1 = on or add and 0 means off or ignore
Start by creating a small table like the one below. 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1



Once you have created the above table we need to have a decimal number to convert so just a number off the top of my head is write this number down.

Without going in to to much detail on how to break up an ip address you need to understand that an ip address is broken down in to 4 parts these 4 parts are called Octets and they are seperated by a decimal point.
So your first Octet is 172

Your second Octet is 16

Your third Octet is 0

Your fourth Octet is 0

This gives us

So lets look at our table that we have drawn again.


What we need to do is starting from left to right is add up the numbers to make the same number as our first Octet.
For instance 128 + 32 + 8 + 4 = 172

So basically all we are going to do is start from left to right and add up any number we need to get to the total of the first Octet. So if we use a number we will put a 1 in the box like below.
If we do not use a number we will put a zero in the box.
The frst Octet was 172 so sarting from the left of the table you will see the first number is 128 so place a 1 in that box like I have below.


now we have to keep adding up so 128 does not equal 172 so we look at the second number in the table which is 64
128 + 64 = 192 This does not equal the first number of our Octet because it is to high. so we will place a zero in this box like below.


128 + 32 = 160 This still does not equal 172 because it is not high enough so we will place a 1 in the box like below.



Now move on to the next number in the table which is 16
128 + 32 + 16 = 176 This is higher than our number of 172 so place a 0 in the box like below.



Now move on to the next number which is 8
128 + 32 + 8 = 168 This is not high enough so place a 1 in the box like below.



Now move on to the next number in the table which is 4



128 + 32 + 8 + 4 = 172 This is perfect, because we have reached our number of 172 you can now place zero's in the other empty boxes like I have done below because we will not use them.



This now gives us our binary number of 10101100
10101100 = 172
If you follow this guide for each octet you would end up with a table that looks like this one below. Decimal Binary



If this helped you please let others know so they may also benefit.
Is there a tutorial you would like me to write ask in the forum.




















Ethernet Cable

The basics


(IEEE) Institute Electrical & Electronic Engineers

IEEE is used to define network standards

10 Base2 (IEEE 802.3a)
10 Base5 (802.3)
100 Base-T 802.3i
1000 Base-TX 802.3x


To break the above up so it is more understandable the numbers on the left hand side represent the number of megabits per second and transmitted.

e.g., 10. 100, 1000 megabits per second

The word base indicates that baseband signalling is used.

The numbers 2 & 5 refer to the coaxial cable segment length

The letters represent the type of cable being used

F = Fibre optic

T = Copper unshielded twisted pair

Ethernet uses baseband signalling

802 IEEE Standards

Ethernet operates at layer 2 of the OSI model, the lower half of the data link layer which is known as the MAC sub-layer and the physical layer




Local & Man Networks

High Level Interface (HILI)

802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC)
802.3 CSMA/CD
802.4 Token Bus
802.5 Token Ring
802.6 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
802.7 Broadband Technical Adv (BBTAG)
802.8 Fibre Optics (FOTAG)
802.9 Integrated Services Lan (ISLAN)
802.10 Interoperable Lan Security
802.11 Wireless Lan (WLAN)
802.12 Demand Priority
802.14 Cable-TV
802.15 Wireless Personal Area Network
802.16 Wireless Access (BBWA)

Default Subnet masks


How many bits in a default subnet mask?

Well let's look at the main 3 which are,

Class A = 24 bits default address is

Class B = 16 bits default address is

Class C = 8 bits default address is

The table below show the default subnet mask and it's number in binary

Remember "1" are for the network and "0" is for the host

So a class A network has a default subnet mask of the binary number for that is 11111111000000000000000000000000

What I like to do is break that binary number up in to octets which stops it looking so intimidating.



Look at my table below which shows the default for class a, b, c network




 IP Range Reminder

1-126 Class A Network
128-191 Class B Network
192-223 Class C Network



You will notice we have left the number 127out this is because it is reserved for the loopback test. This allows you to send & receive data from the same port so you can see it works